There are no contemporary records of how the Pyramids at Giza were built, only descriptions written hundreds, even thousands of years later based on assumptions about the technologies in use at the time of writing. There is no archaeological evidence of these vast earth ramps or of the encampments that would have been needed to house the thousands of craftsmen, overseers and slaves that would have had to be employed on the task. Recent claims to have discovered tevidence of these site were an examples of scientists being emotionally shallow and excitable creatures who jump to facile conclusions. The evidence ogf human habitation was subsequently found to be from many centuries after the pyramids were built. And ancient papyri found in the pyramids show that slave labour was not used by the builders.
While it is true to say that we could replicate the shape and size of the Great Pyramid in a modern structure, and that we would not want to create an exact replica as that would be grossly inefficient, the fact remains that construction physics has proved the earth ramps theory is wrong, with some of the larger stones weighting between fifty and a hundred tons, the ramps would have collapsed under the weight of the stone and people needed to move it.
Efforts to replicate the technique for moving stones to the construction site using boats have failed miserably as have attempts to prove that the builders of Stonehenge in the UK transported from a quarry a hundred miles away, stones, weighting between 10 and 40 tons across marshes, rough terrain and several steep sided valleys through which fast flowing rivers run. An attempt to transport similar stones on wooden rollers in the 1990s only managed to get a stone a few miles despite having the benefit of modern road surfaces, while an attempt to float a ten ton stone down the Nile on a boat made of papyrus reeds failed when the boat sank as soon as the stone was loaded onto it. So it is just wrong to say the construction techniques of the Egyptians have been successfully recreated.
The answrer to “How did the ancient Egyptians build the Great Pyramid is, “We don’t know.” Simples. If you must believe something, take your pick: aliens, priests with magic powers, ancient gods, men with shovels made from the shoulder bones of elephants, lost technologies, time travellers etc. etc. But there is no solid evidence for any of them, just as I have always said there is no more solid evidence for big Bang theory than for the creation myth in the book of Genesis, or vany other ancient creation myths.
As I can’t be bothered going through all the research material on the pyramid builders again and typing out a summary again here’s an answer which covers most of the points I would make, posted by Joshua Vallejos at Quora:
Every modern engineer will tell you that it can be done and even to a better degree and that is just flat out false. Sure, there is the Las Vegas pyramid and the tallest skyscrapers in the modern world. All modern structures consist of forged steel metal and modern light concretes that don’t weigh nearly as much as the largest stones in the Great Pyramid of Giza. Some of the foundational stones weigh over 80 tons and a few obelisks are 400–800 tons. The average outer casing stone weighed about 10 tons. Modern fast transportable cranes can only lift about 18 tons. The largest land crawling crane in the world, Liebherr LR 13000, can lift about 3,000 tons but cannot move very fast at all once lifting a huge payload. It would take days just to go a mile let alone the Quarries that the Egyptians used over 500 miles away.
The closest achievement in modern times to transporting such rocks would be the creation of the Levitated Mass at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. It required a large 196 wheeled custom transporter to carry a 340 ton boulder a little over 100 miles. This cost over $11 million dollars for one stone. To cut the stones today would require millions of dollars of diamond tipped equipment that would need to cut every stone after or before delivery every 36–58 hours in groups of about 472–762 and put into place that same 36–58 hours; If we are to emulate the 20 years “experts” assumed it took to build The Great Pyramid.
To think that The Egyptians had small work groups of about 40–64 people working all at once that had to meet the end day quota of at least 315 stones is ridiculous. That is about 13 stones an hour cut and placed all with just copper tools. Today we couldn’t even place and cut 3 stones/ hr on site without large amounts of water onsite and nonstop replacement of diamond tip blades 24/7 for 20 years.The biggest misconception about the Pyramids is that they are just stacked stones. The Great Pyramids are not relevant because of just the engineering and the materials used, but how the ancient Egyptian society was organized to achieve this in such a early socioeconomic climate of early mankind. They would have had to use massive slavery of over 100,000 people to carry out the work and lift over 2.3 million stones for just the Great Pyramid; calculated by modern computers.
There were many groups that rotated around the clock non-stop for over 86 years consisting of a constant 30,000 slaves. That means that the entire body of workers had to be outnumbered by a constant ruling army or at least controlled for 86 years straight with constant numbers to supply the workforce because of all the people who died building all three pyramids. It is for this very fact we could not build them today.
The Egyptian’s didn’t use currency during the construction of the great pyramids, or at least there is no proof they did until the Greco-Roman period. They used a massive distributed barter system using the widespread abundance of grains and fabrics that came from the Nile River. Our whole society today revolves around a fictitious fiat currency that has no real value other than what we give it, and that is our time and effort. We have too many labor laws and lack of funding to even begin to build the foundation of the Great Pyramids. The construction of the Pyramids, as they were, is impossible because of our evolution away from absolute rulers like the Pharaohs.
- Modern concrete and crushed building materials are not the same as solid granite rock cut into one stone.
- Replicating them as they are versus building a modified and more robust version is nowhere near the same amount of effort as the original ancient method.
- We could not build anything today that would last over 4,000 years like the Great Pyramid at that scale. Most steel metal, concrete, and glass would weather and rust.