Informed consent? If you didn’t ask for it you haven’t consented to it, simples.
One of the big problems Silicon Valley faces is that the public have become aware most of the tech industries powerful figures seem to have had an ethics bypass. Their attitude seems to be, “If we can do it, that means it’s OK for us to do it because we are very clever.”
The fact that many people don’t know something is being done to them via the data they generate online (i.e. targeted ads,) and of those who are aware few understand the implications, means the tech companies have an even more onerous duty of care that, say, newspaper publishers or high street shops.
I like your suggestions for boosting privacy online. Will they ever be taken up? I doubt it, at least not until we all start to abandon platforms and search tools that trade our privacy for hard cash.